Menopause is a key part of the aging process for women. While conversation around the menopause has increased, we want to extend the conversation to discuss the science behind the symptoms and how NAD+ supplements can support your clients who are experiencing menopause.
Menopause and NAD+
The average age a woman enters menopause is 51 and by this time her NAD+ levels will have declined drastically. The loss of estrogen and NAD+ combined creates a perfect storm for cellular dysfunction.
NAD+ is an exciting new area of research for menopause offering a solution for some of the most common menopause symptoms.
Within mitochondria there are known to be many estrogen receptors and a continuous supply of estrogen is required to ensure mitochondria function optimally. So, when estrogen levels fall, this has a knock-on effect on energy production; meaning your cells don’t making the same amount of energy from the food you’ve always eaten. This role of estrogen in maintaining mitochondrial function is why so many women experience fatigue during menopause. 
NAD+ is another molecule that is critical for energy production; it functions as an electron donor in redox reactions and activates sirtuin pathways that repair and protect the mitochondria, ensuring optimal function.
Estrogen has neuroprotective functions; loss of estrogen impairs ATP production in neurons but also the function of key brain regions such as the hippocampus and the frontal lobe, which regulate thinking and memory This means that when estrogen declines, the brain fails to produce sufficient energy, leading to forgetfulness and brain fog. Studies have shown that the metabolic function in a women’s brain after menopause declines by around 15-25% as a result. 
NAD+ dependent enzymes are involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal stress resistance and loss of NAD+ contributes to brain aging. Studies show increasing NAD+ levels has a positive impact on brain health.
One of the most common pieces of feedback we receive from customers is that Nuchido TIME+ reduces brain fog and improves mental clarity, this is unsurprising given the role of NAD+ in energy production and supporting cognitive function.
Accelerated biological aging
Biological age is the rate at which cells are aging inside, how well are they functioning and how much damage they have accumulated. Recent studies have measured the impact of menopause on the biological age of women. One study found that during the transition from perimenopause to menopause a women’s biological age can increase by 9 years in just 6 months, indicating the importance of hormones in regulating aging.  Another study of 2000 women found that their rate of biological aging doubled during menopause, with some women experiencing a biological age increase of 20 years during this period. 
NAD+ is known to promote youthful cellular function and reverse biological age by targeting all the Hallmarks of Aging. Our clinical trial data demonstrates that Nuchido TIME+ reverses biological age by 1.26 years after just 28 days of supplementation.
Estrogen is also important for normal immune function, so estrogen decline contributes to chronic low-level inflammation in women.  Increased inflammation is a key hallmark of aging (termed inflammaging) and is known to drive the cellular aging process. This contributes to increased biological age and tissue damage by activating pro-aging pathways. Inflammation also depletes NAD+ levels in cells to cause further cellular dysfunction.
NAD+ helps regulate appropriate inflammation (such as in response to injury) and prevents chronic inflammation and accelerated aging. This is because NAD+ activates SIRT1 which switches on anti-inflammatory pathways.
In our clinical trial Nuchido TIME+ was found to reduce inflammatory factors – cytokines IL-2, IL-5, IL-23 after 28 days of supplementation.
The circadian rhythm accounts for more than just the sleep/wake cycle, helping to control many important biological functions including hormone production and NAD+ production. Research shows that the circadian rhythm is altered during aging which contributes to the declining NAD+ levels.
Interestingly, NAD+ has also been shown to help regulate the circadian rhythm so ensuring your cells have optimal NAD+ levels can support your circadian rhythm and help promote restful sleep. This is why any of our customers report improved sleep when taking Nuchido TIME+.
What is NAD+?
NAD+ is a natural molecule found in every cell. Ensuring cells have sufficient NAD+ is critical for cellular health, this is because NAD+ regulates:
- Cellular energy production– we depend on NAD+ to convert the nutrients in our food into cellular energy (ATP)
- Cellular repair– NAD+ is responsible for switching on important cellular repair processes
NAD+ levels have been found to decline with age and by the time your clients reach their 40’s the effects this can be felt as a reduction in physical and mental energy, slower recovery and accelerated aging.  In women, this also coincides with a drop in estrogen. Benefits of NAD+ restoration include:
Overall, the rapid decline of both estrogen and NAD+ during menopause creates a ‘perfect storm’ within cells that accelerates the aging process. As NAD+ is critical for many cellular reactions particularly, energy production and cellular repair, increasing NAD+ levels during the menopause transition may help counteract some of the negative effects of estrogen decline.
Humans are living longer than ever before meaning the period of a woman’s life post-menopause is also increasing. Recommending the NAD+ supplement Nuchido TIME+ to your patients can support their cellular health and alleviate certain symptoms of menopause but also promote aging well both pre- and post-menopause.
 Lejri, I., Grimm, A., & Eckert, A. (2018). Mitochondria, estrogen and female brain aging. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 10, 124.
 Conde, D. M., Verdade, R. C., Valadares, A. L., Mella, L. F., Pedro, A. O., & Costa-Paiva, L. (2021). Menopause and cognitive impairment: A narrative review of current knowledge. World Journal of Psychiatry, 11(8), 412.
 Jurić, J., Kohrt, W. M., Kifer, D., Gavin, K. M., Pezer, M., Nigrovic, P. A., & Lauc, G. (2020). Effects of estradiol on biological age measured using the glycan age index. Aging (Albany NY), 12(19), 19756.
 Deriš, H., Kifer, D., Cindrić, A., Petrović, T., Cvetko, A., Trbojević-Akmačić, I., … & Lauc, G. (2022). Immunoglobulin G glycome composition in transition from premenopause to postmenopause. Iscience, 25(3), 103897.
 McCarthy, M., & Raval, A. P. (2020). The peri-menopause in a woman’s life: a systemic inflammatory phase that enables later neurodegenerative disease. Journal of neuroinflammation, 17, 1-14.
 Covarrubias, A. J., Perrone, R., Grozio, A., & Verdin, E. (2021). NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during ageing. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 22(2), 119-141.